Background on SWESTR
In December 2019, the Executive Board of the Riksbank decided that the Riksbank would provide a new transaction-based reference rate in Swedish kronor at the shortest maturity, overnight (O/N), that is to say for loans that run from the current banking day to the next. With SWESTR (Swedish krona Short Term Rate), the Riksbank will provide a transaction-based reference rate that can be used as a reference value for the very shortest maturity in Swedish kronor, and that could replace the current shortest reference rate, STIBOR Tomorrow-Next (T/N).
Test period for SWESTR
During a test period starting on 27 January 2021 and lasting for approximately six months, a preliminary value for SWESTR will be published every Swedish banking day. SWESTR shall not be used in financial contracts during the test period.
This step is in line with international developments, in which several central banks have taken responsibility for providing transaction-based reference rates. Several of these new reference rates are already in use and on the way to replacing traditional interbank rates. One common designation for these interbank rates is Interbank Offered Rate. This has given rise to the acronym IBOR. For example, LIBOR stands for London Interbank Offered Rate, while STIBOR is the Stockholm Interbank Offered Rate.
Reference rates are used as a common benchmark or base value in the pricing of financial contracts such as interest rate derivatives, FX derivatives and debt securities. Reference rates are also used in the pricing of variable-rate loans. In Sweden, they are primarily used in loans to companies. Traditionally, so-called IBORs have been used as reference values for these purposes. IBORs that are calculated in various different ways reflect the interest rates banks demand from one another for short-term uncollateralised loans, which is to say the cost of borrowing money from another bank. Usually, the calculation of IBORs has been partly based on banks’ submissions or judgements of a reasonable interest rate for unsecured loans for the maturity in question under prevailing market conditions. These interest rates are thus not directly based solely on actual transactions.
During the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, liquidity in the interbank loan market deteriorated significantly. This contributed to uncertainty concerning whether IBORs really reflected prevailing market conditions. When reference rates are based on banks' submissions and leave scope for judgement, there exists a risk of manipulation. During the LIBOR scandal, it was revealed that several international banks had manipulated the LIBOR reference rate for their own benefit or for the benefit of individual employees.
These factors led to decreased global confidence in IBORs. Extensive reform work was therefore initiated with the aim of strengthening the reliability of and confidence in reference rates. In 2013, the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) issued a report that included 19 principles for reference values. The same year, the Financial Stability Board (FSB) was tasked with reviewing the reference rates. The EU Benchmarking Regulation also specifies principles and regulations for new reference rates. The FSB made two main recommendations. Firstly, it considered that IBORs needed to be reformed. Secondly, it advocated the development of alternative reference rates based on actual transactions as a complement to IBORs.
In light of the international reform work to develop transaction-based reference rates, the Riksbank, like a number of other central banks, has therefore taken on the task of publishing a transaction-based reference rate, SWESTR, for the Swedish krona. This decision was taken in December 2019, following a consultation with positive support for the proposal.
In November 2020, the Executive Board decided on the definition and calculation method for SWESTR. This decision too was preceded by a consultation in which general support for the Riksbank’s proposed reference rate, including proposed improvements, was expressed.